富士山“小”旅行  2018/07/29 – 2018/08/06

緣起

2012年12月一趟東京、富士山箱根之旅裡,白雪皚皚的富士山,總在我們眼底轉角處赫然出現,感動之於遂興起「明年去山頂吧!」的念頭。

2013年6月,富士山終於登錄世界遺產,不想湊熱鬧,暫緩了計劃;豈知這一擱置,竟然到了2016年冬天才想起!匆匆上網查詢,但都回覆來年已滿,殘念!

2017年春節朋友聚會席間,友人提及丘山行的「富士山登頂 + 伊豆溫泉之旅」行程,於是有了這場2018富士山“小”旅行。

行程

07/29 台北 – 靜岡

07/30 靜岡 – 富士山本宮淺間大社 – 富士宮五合目登山口 (2390m) – 九合目(3460m) (步程約 5hr)

07/31 九合目 – 富士山頂 (3776m) – 寶永火山口 – 五合目 – 修善寺溫泉 (步程約 8hr)

08/01 修善寺溫泉 – 踊子步道 – 河津七瀑 – 河津 (步程約 5hr)

08/02 河津 – 戀人岬 – 土肥金山 – 駿河灣渡輪 – 久能山東照宮 – 日本平 (步程約 2hr)

08/03 日本平 – 三保松原 – 蓬萊橋 – 大井川鐵道 – 小田原

08/04 小田原 – 江之浦測候所 – 東京 (高輪格蘭王子大飯店 舊竹田宮邸洋館)

08/05 東京 – 東京都美術館 (没後50年 藤田嗣治展) – 墨田北齋美術館

08/06 東京 – 台北

p.s. 延伸閱讀 2012年12月遊記@ flashmoment.wordpress.com

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Quote from Gaston Chaissac 2018/03/12

“不被看見也很好" ~ by Gaston Chaissac

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哈金的詩:中心 2018/03/07

中心

你必須守住自己安靜的中心
在那裡做只有你才能做的事情
如果有人說你是白痴或瘋子
就讓他們饒舌去吧
如果有人誇專一
也不必歡喜,只有孤寂
才是你永久的伴侶

你必須守住自己偏遠的中心
天搖地晃也不要遷移
如果別人以為你無足輕重
那是因為你堅守得還不長久
只要你年復一年原地不動
終有一天你會發現
一個世界開始圍繞你旋轉

by 哈金

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Seattle: The Place We Call Home 2017/09/14

1989年12月,我們頂著大雪,一路從Chicago開車來到Seattle。

1991年9月,兒子出生。

          

一晃,就過了這些年。

          

          

 

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Montana: Garnet Ghost Town 2017/09/13

Garnet is one of Montana’s most intact ghosts town situated in a remote valley located at the head of First Chance Creek, 6,000 feet up in the green pine forested mountains east of Missoula. It symbolizes an important era in Montana’s hard rock mining history. Like many of Montana’s ghost towns, Garnet was founded because of mining and this little town was known for gold. They started working on the I-90 side of the mountain, which is the south side, and they placer mined all the way up to the current location.                      The town sprung up essentially overnight. Enterprising miners were more interested in extracting the riches below ground than building above. As a result, buildings grew quickly, most lacking foundations. They were small and easy to heat. Yet, a century after Garnet emerged, remnants of the town stand, hidden high in the Garnet Mountain Range. Today, substantial effort of the Bureau of Land Management and the Garnet Preservation Association has gone into stabilizing and protecting the remaining historic structures.

(http://www.garnetghosttown.net)

The Story Of Garnet                                                                                                          Garnet was named for the semi-precious ruby-colored stone first mined there before gold was found. The surrounding mountains were rich in gold-bearing quartz. A thousand years ago these mountains sat between two rivers, the Clark Fork and the Black Foot Rivers. They were used primarily by the Native Americans to hunt and gather berries. There are no indications that camps or villages were in existence in the Garnet Mountains.

In the 1800s miners migrated north from played-out placer mines in California and Colorado. In 1865, gold discovered in Bear Creek. Placer mining of gold or other minerals is done by washing the sand, gravel, etc. with running water, but by 1870 most area placer mining was no longer profitable. In 1886, first quartz lode mining in Garnet Mountains. Although miners had located gold-bearing quartz veins, the lack of decent roads and refined extracting and smelting techniques, made further development unfeasible at that time. Silver mines elsewhere started to draw the miners out of the Garnet Mountains, but in 1893, the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act set off a panic throughout the region. Silver mines closed, and within weeks thousands of unemployed miners were on to gold mining in the Garnets. Miners began to trickle back.

At the head of First Chance Gulch in 1895, Dr. Armistead Mitchell erected a stamp mill to crush local ore. Around it grew the town, which was originally named Mitchell, but in 1897 became known as Garnet. Soon after Mitchell erected his mill, Sam Ritchey hit a rich vein of ore in his Nancy Hanks mine just west of the town. (The Nancy Hank mine continued to work, on and off, until 1954.) The “boom" began. By January 1898 nearly 1,000 people resided in Garnet. There were four stores, four hotels, three livery stables, two barber shops, a union hall, a butcher shop, a candy shop, a doctor’s office, an assay office, numerous miner’s cabins, thirteen saloons and a school with 41 students comprised the town. Eager miners and entrepreneurs built quickly and without planning, resulting in a haphazard community where most of the buildings stood on existing or future mining claims.

The “boom" was short. By 1900, many mine owners leased their mines out, the gold having become scarcer and harder to mine. By 1905, many of the mines were abandoned and the town’s population had shrunk to about 150 according to 1910 census.

A devastating 1912 fire in the business district destroyed may commercial buildings and dealt a crushing blow to Garnet. The United States’ entry into World War I in 1917 drew most remaining residents away to defense-related jobs. Cabins were abandoned, furnishings included, as though residents were merely vacationing. However, Frank A. Davey still ran a store, and the hotel remained intact.

In 1934 when President Roosevelt raised gold prices from $16 to $35 an ounce, Garnet revived. A new wave of miners moved into abandoned cabins and began re-working the mines and dumps. By 1936, Garnet had grown to some 250 residents. During this era, miners also constructed a number of new log cabins. Life was good in Garnet.

Then, in 1939, World War II drew the population away again. Wartime restrictions on the use of dynamite made mining almost impossible. The post office closed for the last time in 1942. Only a few hardy residents remained, including Frank A. Davey. After his death in 1947, his general store’s contents were auctioned off in 1948. Still, much of the historic fabric of Garnet remained. But, souvenir hunters soon stripped the town, not only of loose items, but of doors, stained glass, artifacts and woodwork, including the beautifully crafted oak banister and spindles in the Wells Hotel.

In 1972, with no remaining residents, Garnet lode mining claim donated to the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) by Davey’s heirs—preservation of Garnet began. Garnet is now recognized as one of Montana’s most intact ghost towns, and thousands of visitors make the trek up the steep mountain roads each year to experience history first-hand.

p.s. The annual celebration the third Saturday of each year is Garnet Day. Garnet’s historical dwellers and other visitors come to this town to celebrate.

These hushed woods once echoed with the rumble of wagons chock-full of gold ore.

Each Empty Building Tells A Story

It’s hard to believe that this hidden alcove was home to 1,000 people in 1898.

 Restoration work began in 1972 by the Garnet Preservation Project. The public donated $90,000 worth of artifacts. The structures being restored include the Dahl Saloon, Kelly’s Bar, Frank A. Davey’s Store,  and the J.K. Wells Hotel. Now, the Bureau of Land Management, along with the Garnet Preservation Association, work together to protect and stabilize about 22 remaining buildings. Interpretive sites are scattered throughout town.

          1. The Dahl Saloon, often called “The Joint” by locals, was built by Ole Dahl in 1938. It stands on the site of a log saloon/restaurant that was run in the late 1800’s by Mel Stairs. When Mel left, Charlie Davis, a teamster who owned a livery stable and drove ore wagons, took over. Ole Dahl’s Saloon operated until the middle of the 1960s. The saloon is now the site of Garnet’s Visitor Center. The visitor center, open daily from June through September, has information about 19th century life here.

2. Kelly’s Saloon is a two story frame building built before 1898. The owner at that time was Robert Moore and it was called the “Bob Moore Saloon.” On October 21, 1898, L. P. Kelly purchased the saloon from Moore for $1,500. Part interest in the business was sold to Thomas Fraser, and it became known as the “Kelly and Fraser Saloon.” In 1907, Nellie Fraser sold it to Ward Mulleneux who resold it to the Montana Liquor Company in 1908, but Kelley continued to operate the saloon. It was one of the thirteen bars in Garnet during the boom period that offered “male-oriented” entertainment.

          3. The exact founding date of Frank A. Davey’s Store is unknown, but it was one of the earliest in Garnet, built about 1898. Typical of western general stores of the time, Davey’s Store sold, among other things, dry goods, shoes, jewelry, canned goods, mining tools, and cuts of meat. The store boasted a hardware section and an office that weighed gold. In the 1910s it functioned as a post office. The meat and other perishables were stored in an icehouse that also contained three secret compartments built into the back wall. There, gold would safely await shipment down the hill. The annex was added to the east side of the store to keep a supply of essentials such as flour and sugar. These items were only sold in emergency situations, a policy that angered many of the townspeople. Frank A. Davey operated the store until 1947. Before moving to Garnet, Davey worked in the grocery department of the Missoula Mercantile which is now Macy’s. Davey had received the patent for the Garnet Claim, so a majority of the town was built on his land. But it never made him rich. When he died in 1947 while walking to one of his claims, it was the Elk’s organization that buried him because his assets could not covered the cost. His belongings, along with the store items, were auctioned off in July of 1948. This officially marked the passing of Garnet into a ghost town.

4. The J. K. Wells Hotel was built in the winter of 1897 and was the most impressive building in Garnet. Mrs. Wells designed it after a hotel she owned in Bearmouth. With its elaborate woodwork, it was equal to the luxurious buildings in Helena.

Before weather and vandals took their toll, the entry was through beautifully carved doors with stained glass windows. To the left was the ladies parlor, on the right stood the hotel office, and moving forward the guest would enter the grand dining room. Such events as the Grande Masquerade, the Hard Times Ball, and the St. Patrick’s Day Calico Ball were held in this room.

          

Although this was a very modern building, there were no plaster walls or insulation. The walls were covered by cloth backed wallpaper. Heating a large building required two stoves in the dining room. Upstairs rooms were heated by rising warm air. Access to these rooms was by an oak staircase. Miners who could not afford a private room would rent floor space on the third floor. Lines divided the floor into spaces for the men to lay out their bedrolls under the sky lights.

          

The outhouse was behind the hotel and could be reached by descending a few steps from the second floor. The interior of the lower regions was heavily whitewashed for the ultimate in sanitary conditions.

          After the Wells Hotel closed in the 1930s. Frank A. Davey moved into the kitchen. Davey maintained several rooms for visiting friends, but in unkept rooms mushrooms grew out of the still-made beds. When Davey died in 1947, everything left in the hotel was sold at an auction.

(right) 8. The blacksmith shop opened between 1896 and 1900. The best blacksmith in town was Billy Liberty. He made horseshoes and common forged items as well as ore wagons. Billy worked for the mines twofold by also driving ore wagons to the mills. He also drove the stage to Bearmouth for Frank A. Davey in the early 1920s.

(left) 9. This log barn was built between 1896 and 1900 to be a stable. There is a loft above the stables for storing feed for the horses.

13. The Post Office (front) was built between 1896 and 1900 as a miner’s cabin. In the 1930s, Nels Seadin was Postmaster when he moved into the Adam’s house. After his death in 1939, Walter Moore took over.

14. The Adams house was built between 1896 and 1900. It was among the nicer homes in Garnet, although constructed from logs, not boards, as it appears. A covered passageway led to the woodshed and outhouse. Mrs. (Jennie) Adams filled her parlor with plants which further added to home’s fine appearance, as did a white picket fence around the front yard. The family lived there from 1904 to 1927. Mrs. Adams had the Post Office in the house until 1910. I 1927 a second family Nels and Lena Seadin moved in.

17. The Bill Hubner cabin was built in 1949 and now serves as the staff office. Hubner and his son rebuilt the Mussigbrod mill and planned to live in this cabin, but never did.

19. This log and frame cabin was the residence of Ole Dahl. Ole and Marion Dahl moved into this cabin in 1938 and built their own saloon, Dahl’s Bar, just down the street. They added a kitchen to the rear of the cabin, a garage and a shed that housed the generator that provided electricity to the hose and saloon. Marion Dahl was living in Garnet as late as 1960s. This cabin can be rented in the winter.

(front) 20. This log building constructed between 1896 and 1900. It originally was quite a nice cabin, but during World War I, Frank A. Davey acquired it and turned it into a livery shed. By removing a few logs, Davey could store his stage coach inside. Known as a “democrat,” the coach was actually a spring wagon with two seats and a fancy name. Charlie Moore operated this business for Davey for four years.

(back) 21. The Hanifen house was a unique 1 1/2 story, board and batten structure  built in the early 1900s by Hugh Hanifen.  He lived in it until 1916. Mrs. Cleary, a school teacher, lived there until 1926. It represents one of the nicer homes in Garnet, being built with vertical boards instead of the typical logs. The house also has a ten food ceiling in the kitchen – a mark of a fine home during the Victorian Era. This kind of construction made heating the home expensive.

22. People return to Garnet after President Roosevelt announced a price increases for gold and it became profitable to mine again. Glen and Edith Have lived in Kelley’s Saloon while they built this frame house in 1937. This structure has three rooms; a bedroom, a kitchen, and a front room used as a living room. The home had modern conveniences such as a radio, a washing machine, a sink, and a kerosene-powered refrigerator.

Do You Want To Sleep With The Ghosts?                                                                Garnet is open to visitors all year. During the summer, the ghost town comes alive with tourists eager to glimpse into the past.  However, the two roads leading into Garnet are closed to wheeled vehicles from January 1st to April 30th, so the only way in is by foot or by snowmobile.                                                                                                                                   For the adventurous, a winter visit to Garnet is a chance to better understand the trials and challenges experienced by Montana settlers during the long, dark days. Two rental cabins are available December through April; arrangements need to be made in advance by calling the Missoula Field Office BLM. Because of the popularity of some weekends, reservations are given by a lottery system. Each cabin is furnished with cooking utensils and a propane stove. Neither has electricity or indoor plumbing. Outhouses and potable water are near the cabins.                                                                                                               Dahl Cabin (19): It has three full size beds and two cots that will readily accommodate up to six persons. Rental: $40 a night.                                                                                   McDonald Cabin (15): It is a single room with two double beds (four persons would find it cozy but pleasant). Rental: $30 a night

 (http://www.garnetghosttown.net)

p.s. 開車進入Garnet的道路有二,千萬要選Montana Route 200,而不是Interstate 90!切記!!

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Montana: Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument—A Place of Reflection 2017/09/12

With the possible exception of Gettysburg and the JFK assassination, there has probably been more written about the Battle of the Little Bighorn than any other single event in American history. Even today, it is studied and argued and written about.

(via https://www.nps.gov/libi/index.htm)

Located in Crow Agency, Montana, the 765-acre Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument memorializes the Seventh United States Cavalry Regiment led by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer, and the Sioux and Northern Cheyenne under the political and spiritual leadership of Sitting Bull in one of the Indians last armed efforts to preserve their way of life.

p.s. The Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument was originally named Custer Battlefield National Monument. President George H.W. Bush renamed the site on December 10, 1991. It is now representative of those who were in the battle, Native Americans and the 7th U.S. Cavalry.

A very informative visitor center and museum contains exhibits relating to the 1876 Battle of Little Bighorn in which a total of 263 U.S. Cavalrymen, of the regiments 650 men, were killed in action by several thousand Lakota Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho warriors. The Museum features exhibits of the history of the battle, Custer, weapons, archaeology, and Plains Indian life.

          

          Adjoining the visitor center is Custer National Cemetery, which includes interments from abandoned frontier military posts, the world wars, Korea and Vietnam.

          The heart of Little Bighorn is Last Stand Hill, where the crux of the battle was fought and where visitors can view the tiny, crooked gravestones and markers indicating where Custer’s troops fell and were buried.

p.s. Late Sunday afternoon, June 25,1876, 210 men in five companies (C, E, F, I, L) of the 7th U.S. Cavalry, were killed in action by Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho warriors. Approximately 42 men, including Lt. Col. George A. Custer, died in a group on this hillside.

          

The 7th Cavalry Memorial, a towering stone monolith built in 1881 by Lt. Charles F. Roe and the 2nd Calvary, was  erected to commemorate the 263 members of the 7th Cavalry that fell in battle under the command of Lt. Col. George A. Custer on June 25 and 26 of 1876.

Nearby, the somber “Peace Through Unity” Indian Memorial features metal castings of “Spirit Warriors,” commemorating the Native American fighters and tribal women involved in the battle. For decades, Native Americans sought to have their story recognized at the national monument. On June 25, 2003 the Indian Memorial was unveiled. Sixty Native Americans are documented to have died in the battle, but the exact toll is not known. The retaining walls, entryway, and interior walls are all constructed from native sandstone. There are also openings to each of the four cardinal directions, which are significant in many Great Plains tribes’ spiritual beliefs.

                 The bronze sculpture of three Native American Spirit Warriors riding off to battle was designed by Oglala artist Colleen Cutschall. The Spirit Warriors (Oyate, Cheyenne, and Arapaho) and the woman handing off a shield are silhouetted against the constant yet ever changing Great Plains sky–the proverbial home of the spirit.

One of the most significant features of the Indian Memorial is the Spirit Gate. This narrow opening orients the memorial toward Last Stand Hill and the 7th Cavalry Memorial. The Spirit Gate acts as a passage for the cavalry dead into the Memorial’s sacred central circle where they can then proceed on to the afterlife.

A 4.5 mile self-guiding tour road connects two separate battlefields, the Custer Battlefield and the Reno-Benteen Battlefield.

後記:必須承認,在造訪此景點前,對此役毫無概念;面對大批遊客長途跋涉、頂著太陽穿梭在光禿禿的原野裡,也頗為不解。很高興因為兒子的帶領認識這段歷史,在往後幾天的Montana旅行,才能理解,當地是如何與這片土地有關的歷史人物“相處”。

再記:諷刺的是,當你以為了解夠多Andy Warhol時,隨著即將在Booth Museum展出的“Warhol and the West” (August 25 – December 31, 2019) ,才發現這位Pop Art king對美國西部以及支持它的神話有著近乎終生的迷戀;為此也造就了他生前最後的系列作品– the 1986 series Cowboys and Indians (14 iconic Western subjects making up this group include Custer, Sitting Bull, Geronimo, Annie Oakley, and John Wayne)。

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Montana: The National Bison Range — A Home for Wildlife 2017/09/11

          

The National Bison Range (NBR) is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The 18,500 acre range is located in Moiese, Montana providing a sanctuary for the American bison.

Range elevation varies from 2,585 feet at headquarters to 4,885 feet at High Point on Red Sleep Mountain, the highest point on the Range. Much of the NBR was once under prehistoric Glacial Lake Missoula, which was formed by a glacial ice dam on the Clark Fork River about 13,000 to 18,000 years ago. The lake attained a maximum elevation of 4,200 feet, so the upper part of the Refuge was above water. Topsoil on the Range is generally shallow and mostly underlain with rock which is exposed in many areas, forming ledges and talus slopes.

A Successful Comeback                                                                                         Historically, millions of bison roamed the Great Plains. However, by the late 1800s, increased pressure from settlers, fur traders, hunters, and Indians, as well as habitat damage from domestic animals, were taking their toll on these animals-by the end of the century, as few as 100 bison remained in the wild. In responses public concern for vanishing herds, President Theodore Roosevelt established the NBR in 1908. This marked the first time that U.S. Government used public funds to purchased land for the sole purpose of protecting wildlife. Today, 350-400 bison make their home on the NBR, and an estimated half million bison can be found on public and private lands across the country.

Protecting an Ecosystem                                                                                       Establishing the NBR not only restored bison numbers, but it also preserved a larger area of intermountain grassland, on of the most endangered ecosystem in North America. Today, the NBR is a diverse ecosystem of grasslands, Douglas fir and ponderosa pine forests, riparian areas and ponds. It is home to a wild variety of wildlife that thrives in these four habitats.

Large wildlife found on the Range include Rocky Mountain elk, white-tail and mule deer, pronghorn antelope, bighorn sheep, black bear, coyote, mountain lions, bobcat and ground squirrels who share the area with bison. Over 200 species of birds also call this home including eagles, hawks, meadowlarks, bluebirds, ducks, and geese.

New Visitor Center with displays open to the public in 1982.

          

Bison and humans have coexisted for a very long time. In North America, flint spear points as old as 1200 years have been found among bison bones. Native Americans hunted for meat as well as for hides for clothing and shelter. And bison were able to furnish much more – sinew used for bowstrings, hooves boiled to make glue, dung burned as fuel, and toe bones used like dice. The relationship with bison formed the basis of many Plains Indian beliefs, stories and religions.

Big Medicine born in 1933, a rare white bison, he had with a brown top knot of hair and blue eyes. Big Medicine dies at age 26 on 1959 August 25.

Scenic Drives                                                                                                                             

The primary means of traveling through the NBR is via personal vehicles.

West Loop–These short one mile loop is located near the Visitor Center. It is open to trailers and large vehicles over 30 feet long. Bison are typically found here in the summer as well as white-tail deer and numerous grassland bird species.

          

Red Sleep Mountain Drive (mid-May to early-Oct)–This 19-mile, one-way loop road gains 2,000 feet and there are many switchbacks and 10% grades along the drive. Watch for bighorn sheep at the higher elevations. Two walking trails are located along this road.

Buffalo Prairie Drive–To promote viewing along Mission Creek, the Service has opened the Prairie Drive to two-way traffic year round. This 14-mile roundtrip gravel road travels east along the flats, allowing visitors to access Mission Creek and Alexander Basin.

          

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Idaho: A Walk About Historic Wallace 2017/09/11

Founded in 1884, Wallace sits alongside the South Fork of the Coeur d’Alene River, approximately 2,728 feet (831 m) above sea level. The town’s population was 784 at the 2010 census.

The town is named for William R. Wallace, a local farmer. Silver mining would soon replace agriculture, and the community that emerged around Wallace’s small cabin would soon develop into a regional center for the Silver Valley mining industry, which produced more silver than any other mining district in the United States.

Wallace is also known for the fact that every downtown building is on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979 … which is why the government finally had to go over Wallace instead of through Wallace in order to complete the Interstate Highway system in 1991.

Downtown Wallace with I-90 visible on the bridge at the back

The Wallace Historic District, which is roughly bounded by Oak, Silver, C, Mullan, Canyon, Fir, and 1st Streets. It was destroyed by fire on July 27, 1890. Reconstruction began immediately. This time predominately masonry structures were built for better fire resistance. Three of these 1890 vintage strutters still grace the corners of Sixth and Bank streets. The entire town now is a fine collection of turn-of-the-century buildings … a showcase of Queen Anne, Art Deco, Chicago, Neo-classic, and Arts and Crafts architectural styles.

The official walking tour of Wallace starts at the old Train Depot, then leads visitors around on a comprehensive tour of 43 historic buildings. Hotels, brothels, bars, banks… just about every single building in the old town has a story to share. On the tour, you should look for architectural features such as cast-iron cornices and pilasters, terra cotta trim and decorative glass. Some buildings still have the old glass windows with irregular surfaces.

           

          

          

          

         

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Idaho: The Coeur d’Alene Resort  2017/09/10~2017/09/11

人生的機緣很奇妙,一趟突發奇想的Montana旅行,竟讓全家在24年後,舊地重遊Coeur d’Alene Resort!

           Then: 1993/09/10                                                     Now: 2017/09/10

當年趴在肩上睡覺的baby,如今肩並肩一起上場打球–Where did the time go?

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Road Trip: Seattle to Billings Tour  2017/09/09~2017/09/15

緣起:近年臺灣因露營風氣盛行,被譽為「露營聖地」的新竹縣尖石、五峰鄉屢傳山坡地大面積違法開發,甚至有露營業者將整個山頭削成梯田,轉為露營地牟利。今年四月傳出被列為土石流潛勢區的尖石鄉梅花國小及部落上方山頭被濫墾,面積竟達1.7公頃,讓部落族人擔心被滅村。其實,多數業者都表示想合法經營,但現有的法規訂得不合理,自治條例又無法解決當前問題 ,令業者無所適從。那麼露營地到底該如何管理?露營業發展完善的美國又是如何經營的呢?突發奇想,就有了這趟Kampgrounds of American之旅。

KOA:1962年成立於蒙大拿州比林斯市(Billings, Montana)的Kampgrounds of American Inc.是北美最大的露營地連鎖企業,旗下約有485個加盟營地、30個自營營地。此行我們將入住KOA第一個營地Billings KOA,並且在KOA公關副總Mike Gast的帶領下參觀KOA總部。

         

行程:1962年Ray Possley在參觀完西雅圖世界博覽會後,開著他的Dodge從西雅圖(Seattle, Washington)返回Illinois,約812英哩之後,他成為Billings KOA的第一位入住者。我們理所當然仿效他,一路沿著I-90,來場懷舊之旅。

張貼在 旅途中 | 發表留言